Executing Dynamic SQL in SQL Server

You can create and run SQL statements dynamically at runtime with SQL Server’s sophisticated dynamic SQL functionality. When you need to create sophisticated queries based on changing inputs or circumstances, this feature can be very helpful. It does, however, also have a unique set of difficulties and dangers. The goal of this essay is to give readers a thorough grasp of dynamic SQL, including its multiple execution techniques and recommended usage guidelines. We’ll also go over when dynamic SQL is appropriate and when it should be avoided in certain instances.

What is Dynamic SQL?

Dynamic SQL refers to SQL code that is generated and executed at runtime rather than being hard-coded in the application. This approach allows for greater flexibility, as the SQL statements can be tailored based on user input, application state, or other runtime conditions. Dynamic SQL is constructed as a string and then executed by the SQL Server.

Methods of Executing Dynamic SQL

There are two ways to execute dynamic SQL in SQL Server, each with its own advantages and considerations. The primary methods are.

The EXECUTE (or EXEC) statement is a straightforward way to execute dynamic SQL. It is simple and easy to use but has certain limitations.

In the below example, the EXEC statement executes the dynamic SQL string stored in the @SQL variable.


Simple to use.
Suitable for straightforward dynamic SQL statements.


Limited parameterization can lead to SQL injection vulnerabilities.
Harder to debug and maintain for complex queries.

The sp_executesql stored procedure is a more robust and secure way to execute dynamic SQL. It allows for parameterized queries, which enhances security and performance.

In the below example, sp_executesql executes a parameterized dynamic SQL statement, providing better security and performance.


Supports parameterization, reducing the risk of SQL injection.
Allows for better query plan reuse, improving performance.
More readable and maintainable for complex queries.


Slightly more complex to use than EXEC.
Requires careful handling of parameter data types and lengths.

When to Use Dynamic SQL?

Dynamic SQL is particularly useful in the following scenarios.

Dynamic Table Names or Column Names: When the table name or column names need to be decided at runtime.

Complex Search Conditions: When the search conditions are not known until runtime and can vary significantly.

Metadata Queries: When querying system catalog views or system tables where the structure is not known until runtime.
Data-Driven Logic: When business logic depends on data that is not known until runtime.

When Not to Use Dynamic SQL?

Dynamic SQL should be avoided in the following scenarios.

Simple Static Queries: When the SQL statements are known and do not change, using static SQL is simpler and more efficient.
Security Concerns: If not handled properly, dynamic SQL can lead to SQL injection vulnerabilities.
Performance Issues: Excessive use of dynamic SQL can lead to poor performance due to the lack of query plan reuse.
Complexity and Maintainability: Dynamic SQL can make the code more complex and harder to maintain.

Best Practices for Using Dynamic SQL

When using dynamic SQL, follow these best practices to ensure security, performance, and maintainability.

Always use parameterized queries to prevent SQL injection and improve performance.
Use the QUOTENAME function to safely include object names (e.g., table names, column names) in dynamic SQL.
Always validate and sanitize input values to prevent SQL injection.
Minimize the Use of Dynamic SQL, use dynamic SQL only when necessary. For static or known queries, use regular SQL statements.
Monitor the performance of dynamic SQL statements and optimize them as needed. Use tools like SQL Server Profiler or Extended Events to analyze performance.
Document and comment on your dynamic SQL code to make it easier to understand and maintain.

Advanced Topics in Dynamic SQL
Handling Output Parameters

Dynamic SQL can also handle output parameters using sp_executesql.

In the below example, the sp_executesql procedure is used to execute a dynamic SQL statement with an output parameter.

Executing Dynamic DDL statements

Dynamic SQL can be used to execute dynamic Data Definition Language (DDL) statements, such as creating or altering tables.

In the below example, a table is created dynamically using dynamic SQL.

Using Dynamic SQL in Stored Procedures

Dynamic SQL can be embedded within stored procedures to add flexibility to the procedure logic.
In the below example, a stored procedure uses dynamic SQL to retrieve employees based on a department ID.


With careful usage and adherence to best practices, dynamic SQL can be an invaluable tool in your SQL Server development toolkit, enabling you to create flexible, efficient, and secure database applications. By following best practices such as using parameterized queries, validating input, and optimizing performance, you can harness the power of dynamic SQL while mitigating its risks. Always consider the specific requirements and constraints of your application to determine when dynamic SQL is appropriate and when static SQL might be a better choice.

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